An Exploration Into Electric Airplanes

In this paper, the problem of carbon dioxide emissions from airplanes and other aviation is looked at through research done previously by other professionals in the field. Through using this research, an answer is posed to the question of whether or not electric airplanes are in near sight. The results show that electric airplanes will not be a possibility for at least fifty years because of aspects such as the weight of the battery itself and that the designing process would have to be redeveloped. The methodology used includes finding the facts and previous research and/or projects done for the specific idea of electric airplanes and using that data to come up with a clear and concise answer that anyone can understand and fully adapt to, rather than be in a confused state of mind. The most important outcome from this research is that there are still areas to improve and work on. The research that has been done in this paper can be used by engineers to focus on what is really important when constructing and designing an electric airplane, so that they know exactly what is wrong, rather than just a scattered list of problems. Additionally, the research done in this paper goes to show that little research has been done on this specific aspect, and that research is actually going on currently, so all research that is coming out is recent as this is an aspect of the field that is very hot with aerospace engineers. To add on, this research can be carried out even further by finding ways to insulate the electrical components more efficiently and overall create prospective designs for the future of aviation. Research Paper by Harshavi Birla. Grade 9, Pennsbury High School, PA #Research #electricairplanes #carbon-dioxide #airplanes #harshavibirla

The connection between COVID-19 Variants (Gamma and DeltaVariant) and Demographics Using Python

From schools shifting to virtual learning and offices promoting work from home, COVID-19 transformed the way the world functions. Like any other virus, the coronavirus has many variants. This research paper discusses the connection between two prominent variants: the Gamma variant and the Delta variant and certain demographic features like gender, age, and location. The method used in this research paper includes finding data from credible sites and other evidence and using python to extract the needed data to support theories. The theories stated in this research paper are not completely valid due to the lack of strong evidence. So, instead of concluding with a strong thesis, this research paper aims to motivate other researchers to delve even deeper into this topic. Basically, this study focuses on the importance of future research and acts as a stepping stone for other researchers who are interested in learning more about COVID-19 variants and their connection with different demographic features. Research Paper by Sneha Nangunoori. Grade 11, Westwood High School, Texas #research #covid19 #snehanagunoori #python

Is Aducandumab a Miracle Drug?

A monoclonal antibody-based therapeutic was recently approved for Alzheimer’s disease called Aducanumab (Aduhelm). Approval of the drug was controversial, as it is expensive and its long-term effect on the disease is unclear. Here reviewed are published studies and argue that Aducanumab is indeed a promising therapeutic. Our approach starts with understanding the pathology underlying Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s is a progressive, degenerative disease including on a structural level plaques of amyloid-beta protein and tangles of tau protein, associated with neuronal death. Aducanumab is an immunotherapeutic drug that is indicated for moderately severe cases of Alzheimer’s. Aducanumab is an antibody that binds the plaques and marks them for destruction by t-cells. As such, amyloid plaques that are both soluble and insoluble can be cleared. Indeed, clinical trials show that drugs reduced plaques regardless of the size. Whether this will result in improvement in Alzheimer’s symptoms is unclear, and further studies should clarify this. Regardless, Aducanumab is the first medication to successfully remove amyloid-beta plaques, a hallmark of the disease. Its progress should be followed with great interest. Research Paper by Sanjana Ananthula. Grade 12, Rhode Island #sanjanaananthula, #alziemers #Aducanumab

Cell Metabolism in Neuroblastoma

The term cell metabolism refers to the cell’s ability to carry out metabolic reactions from biochemical changes. The keyword in that sentence was supposed, the reactions can change based on certain circumstances. The primary being cancer and the most reactive type of cancer, in this case, brain cancer. Brain cancer is cancer linked to the spinal cord, brain, and brain stem. One of the most popular types of brain cancer is neuroblastomas, which occur in relatively small infants, even in embryos. This type of cancer is particularly hazardous, because it occurs in the nerves of cells, specifically targeting neurons. These neurons are very critical to the body for a multitude of reasons. For starters, they transmit and receive signals from all parts of the body, and give instruction. Furthermore, these are non-regenerative cells. This means that if they get damaged or broken, they won’t replicate and will be stuck in the G0 phase, unlike almost all somatic cells of the body. This is why when malignancy affects these parts, it can be especially tough on the body. In addition, this makes metabolizing energy harder, which is why they developed their system of doing it, although far less efficient. This phenomenon that will be explored is known as the Warburg Principle. Research Paper by Laiba Majid. Grade 9, Monroe Township, New Jersey #research #cellmetabolism #Neuroblastoma #laibamajid

The effect of stress on insulin production across different generations

Stress has become a standard part of life for a majority of humanity, and its effects have a significant impact on the day-to-day lives of many. Stress has an even higher impact on the lives of those who have diseases, such as diabetes. Additionally, as people get older, stress affects them in various ways, especially regarding hormonal production. In this research paper, the question of how the output of a particular hormone, insulin, differs across different generations will be discussed. A clear connection was made through the compilation of many research papers concerning stress, insulin production, and age. As a person ages, their ability to handle emotional stress increases; however, their physical stress far exceeds that of a younger generation. Because of this physical stress, insulin production rates lessen, and the probability of diabetes developing increases. The original hypothesis outlines a similar thought process, except instead of focusing on physical stress, it disregarded it and instead concentrate on other factors. The point of this research paper was so that a clear connection between age, insulin production, and stress can be established so that other researchers can do further research on this topic. Research Paper by Om Patil. Grade 11, Cumberland Valley Highschool, Pennsylvania #insulin #ompatil #diabetes

Use of Artificial Intelligence in fighting Covid-19 and vaccine development

SARS- CoV- 19 Pandemic caused a health crisis that halted every aspect of human life, including health, education, industry, and science, in 2020. Total Covid -19 deaths as of 7/7/2021 documented per CDC using National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) is 596,740. Covid-19 caused mild respiratory illness to severe respiratory distress syndrome resulting in multi-organ failure. Healthcare workers, scientists, and researchers were struggling to diagnose and treat Covid-19 initially, but with the help of research scientists, new drugs like Remdesivir and Tocilizumab were discovered to save millions of lives in the past year throughout the world. As the new drugs evolved, vaccines became available, which has tremendously reduced COvid-19 morbidity and mortality. Science and technology are like twin brothers. They always go hand in hand. As the illness spread to 212 countries, researchers were struggling to handle the ever-growing big data. AI is one such technique that deals with big data using Deep learning and machine learning (DL/ML) and bridges the gap between science and technology. AI can uncover hidden opportunities in healthcare. When WHO announced Covid-19 as a pandemic, many research institutes and tech companies started using AI to assist with covid related research. Research by Roshan Swapnanandan, Grade 10, Connecticut #ai #pandemic #coronavirus #ml #roshan

The Role of Machine Learning during the Pandemic

The multitude of functions that Machine Learning holds gives it an important role during the pandemic. The term, Machine Learning, can be defined as an aspect of artificial intelligence capable of creating systems of data, and being able to learn from the data and make predictions. Such ‘roles’ include helping with Vaccine Hesitancy, Recovery of Patients, Clinical Trials, and Prediction of future disease/symptoms. The most popular algorithms include Naive Bayes, KNN, Random Forest, and Decision Tree. Random forest is particularly important due to its ability to predict survival percentage and such, it has also been used to identify areas of low vaccinated populations. KNN uses prediction analysis to predict the possible symptoms for COVID patients. Research Paper by Shvant Gaitonde. Grade 11, Unionville Highschool, Pennsylvania #ai #pandemic #shvantgaitonde

Using Stem Cell Therapy as an Effective Treatment for Chronic Kidney Disease

In this research paper, the topic of Using Stem Cells to Treat Chronic Kidney Disease is addressed. By analyzing treatment options and various stem cell research documents, I was able to conclude that mesenchymal stem cells carry renotropic characteristics making them ideal for this topic. Mesenchymal Stem Cells are adult stem cells derived from sources like the umbilical cord, bone marrow, and fat tissue. This helps dissolves the majority of the moral issues surrounding stem cell research. When investigating mesenchymal stem cells, they seem to be even more ideal because they are practically invisible to the immune system, however, this may actually be the downfall. MSCs don’t have a functioning p53 gene, causing a tendency to cancerous growth without detection, hence lack of apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. I have investigated possible solutions using laser technology to build organs and using gene therapy to combat the lack of the p53 gene. While there needs to be much more testing and research, my paper addresses possible options that would provide a more efficient and cost and time-effective treatment option for those that suffer from Chronic Kidney Disease. Research Paper by Srivalli Kantamneni. Grade 10, Cabarrus County, North Carolina #research #stemcell #kidney #srivalli

Action mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine therapies for rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease that affects millions of people all over the world. Current methods of treating RA consist of DMARDs and NSAIDs. These methods of treatment have been shown to have low efficacy rates and even cause debilitating side effects. This is concerning considering these are the standard forms of medication, and yet they do not yield consistent results, and can even be harmful to the body. Fortunately, there are alternatives to the standard practices, some of which are botanical medications. One such botanical alternative is ChondroT, which utilizes natural substances to create an effective drug with a promising toxicity profile and has shown to be effective in reducing inflammation within the joint. Other botanical drugs that have shown promising results are Harpagophytum procumbens with Gamma-Linolenic, and GLA with n-3 LC-PUFAs, which utilize their natural composition to treat RA, without the risk of side effects. Additionally, another treatment that has shown to be an alternative for the common methods, is the Anakinra treatment. The Anakinra treatment works by blocking the interleukin-1 protein, this, in turn, blocks further inflammation into the joint. Although these treatments do show promise, they have not gone under enough testing to be considered common treatments. These medications should only be considered if the standard medications do not work. Looking forward, future testing of these alternative medications would have to be done for them to be considered standard treatments, however, progress is being made in better RA treatments. Research Paper by Abraham Kallivayalil. Grade 11, Bloomfield Hills High School, Michigan #research #chrondroT #AbrahamKallivayalil

Current Statistics, Prevention, and Pathology of Covid-19

In late 2019, the world first was introduced to the Covid-19 virus. It is in the same family as the common cold, which people normally do not have to fear, but Covid- 19 is newly classified and has the potential to be deadly. During the peak of the pandemic, each day, thousands of people were contracting Covid-19. Hospitals were trying to avoid being overrun with patients, so certain precautions such as face mask requirements and even lockdowns were implemented. Meanwhile, inside hospitals, the more severe cases were going on ventilators, and sadly, the mortality rate from the disease became so significant that scientists were forced to work at a rapid pace to develop a vaccine. A person may wonder how a virus that is classified in the same family as the common cold could be so deadly and affect everyone’s lives to this degree. This paper will examine the pathology of the virus, as well as discuss ways in which hard-to-access areas or areas of vaccine hesitancy can be given access to the vaccine. Research Paper by Anish Komatireddy. Grade 10, Novi High School, MI #research #anish #vaccine #coronavirus

The Effectiveness of Covid-19 Vaccines Based on Individuals Health and Race

This paper will discuss the overall effectiveness of each vaccine on different individuals. Covid-19 was a virus that took the world by storm and having a vaccine to immunize ourselves saved the world. The vaccine may cause different individuals to act differently depending on their race, age, gender, physical/mental disabilities, and any other individual factors. These vaccines changed the world and caused us to take more care of an individual in a state of matter. This paper will also discuss the findings and other factors about the case study of J&J, Pfizer, and Moderna. Over the past two years, the virus has slowly died down due to the effectiveness of these vaccines and they have truly saved the world. Without these vaccines, we would still be in the state of a pandemic and lots of people don’t need to have the use of masks. This paper will essentially make sure that you understand the basis of vaccines on different individuals. Research Paper by Sai Vetcha. Grade 11, Marvin Ridge High School, North Carolina #research #saivetcha #vaccine #humanrace

A comparative study on the toxicology and pharmacology of four COVID-19 vaccines

The SARS CoV-2 virus, otherwise known as COVID-19, has left wide holes in our understanding of this deadly coronavirus. There is much we do not understand about the true severity of the situation, as well as about the vaccines that have been manufactured to resolve this global pandemic. The need for an understanding of these forms of vaccination will provide insight into the situation at hand. Hence, a comparison between four cutting-edge vaccines for COVID-19 is drawn on the basis of mechanics, efficacy, and chemical composition within the contents of this comparative study. Data and information were extracted from vaccine fact sheets, scholarly articles, and research databases. From this study, it becomes apparent that the vaccines retain a number of similarities and differences that contribute to their overall effectiveness. This report provides reasons for the most effective technologies being used with the greatest statistical results. COVID-19 Vaccines with salts and lipids are key for the best vaccine performance, ingredients that all the vaccines being considered to have. The most successful active ingredient is revealed to be the nucleoside modified messenger RNA component of mRNA vaccines. The variety of technologies produced in this timeframe have proved to be promising. Research Paper by Srikar Srinivasan. Grade 12, Hillsboro, NJ #research #covid19 #coronavirus #vaccine #srikar

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